Role of Family History In Hypertension

Nov 28, 2023

Introduction

Certain studies indicate that children and grandchildren of biological parents with hypertension are at risk of developing the same ailment. The greatest risk, specifically, is if someone in the family has hypertension under the age of 55. 


Genes alone, however, do not entirely account for hereditary hypertension. Living in similar surroundings can also contribute to the same unhealthy diet and behaviors among residents, such as binge drinking or smoking. These variables raise the risk of getting hypertension in addition to heredity. (Ranasinghe et al., 2015)


● According to the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), a person's home environment may have an impact on their risk of hypertension.

● The risk of high blood pressure might increase with smoking or simply inhaling secondhand smoke.

● High-saturated-fat and salt diets can also raise blood pressure.

● Blood pressure may also be adversely influenced if a family dynamic lacks physical exercise and healthy sleeping habits. (Liu et al., 2015)


Genes Involved In Hypertension 

Essential hypertension in humans has been linked to several genetic variants. Genes implicated in the regulation of the following might be examples:


The System Of Renin, Angiotensin, And Aldosterone

This contributes to the body's regulation of blood pressure. Scientists think that a person's body may be less able to regulate blood pressure due to genetic alterations.


Blood Vessel Lining, Or Vascular Endothelium

Variations in the genes responsible for the normal operation of the endothelium can result in a variation in the construction of blood vessels and hinder their capabilities. A narrowing of the blood arteries may occur, leading to elevated blood pressure. (Tozo et al., 2022)


Biochemical Elements

Since genes are passed across a single generation to the next, many genetic abnormalities and ailments are inherited. For instance, exposure to UV or radiation might result in genetic changes that impact the genes' capacity to produce vital proteins.


Angiotensinogen was the first individual gene associated with hypertension (AGT). This is the starting point for a protein hormone known as angiotensin, which regulates blood pressure by instructing the body on when to:

● Reduce blood vessel numbness

● Turn on your water intake.

● Initiate sodium (salt) consumption. (Roland, 2022)


Monogenic Hypertension

Blood pressure brought on by a single genetic mutation inherited through a parent is referred to as monogenic hypertension. Approximately thirty percent of instances of hypertension are caused by monogenic hypertension. The mutant variation can result in hypertensive diseases and problems regulating blood pressure, such as:

● Adrenal hyperplasia during birth

● Overdosing on steroids

● Gellar illness

● Liddle phenomenon. (Aktiia, 2023)


Environmental Factors

A family member that smokes may have included you in the category of secondhand smokers, sometimes known as "passive smokers." Here is where you may be exposed to the negative effects of cigarettes without actually smoking one.


In an investigation including more than 106,000 individuals who said they had never smoked, those who had been exposed to secondhand smoke at work or at home had a much higher risk of getting hypertension.(Ranasinghe et al., 2015)


Social Factors

Lifestyle choices including nutrition, exercise, and sleep quality also have a significant impact. Think about how people frequently exhibit the same characteristics or routines as their guardians or siblings. If a kid or young adult grows up in a household where it is customary for families to:

● consume a diet heavy in processed sugar or salt

● not working out frequently

● not get enough sleep


They'll then be more inclined to see similar behaviors in others and to engage in them themselves. Furthermore, there is ample scientific proof. An elevated risk of hypertension can be attributed to an improper diet, insufficient exercise, and inadequate sleep. (Liu et al., 2015)

Management

1. Eat less cheese and fatty meat, as well as other items high in saturated fats and salt.

2. Eat more foods high in fiber, such as oats, lentils, and beans.

3. Take a vigorous 30-minute stroll in the morning.

4. Make sure you get to bed sufficiently early to get seven to eight hours of sleep. (Tozo et al., 2022)

Conclusion

My Family Medical Portrait online tool is one method you may arrange information about your own and your family's medical history. You may compile your entire family's medical history, distribute it to other family members, and find out how much of a risk you are for illnesses that often run in families.


A 2018 evaluation Research from a reliable source indicates that genetic variables may account for 20–55 percent of the effect. However, a lifestyle that promotes can greatly reduce the risk of elevated blood pressure, independent of a person's genetic susceptibility, according to a 2017 research. (Roland, 2022)


This implies that leading a healthy lifestyle that includes frequent aerobic activity, quitting smoking, and eating a low-sodium diet might help mitigate the effects of having a gene that increases your risk of hypertension.

Young individuals can follow these preventive measures to reduce their risk of developing hypertension.


References:

1.Ranasinghe, P., Cooray, D. N., Jayawardena, R., & Katulanda, P. (2015). The influence of family history of Hypertension on disease prevalence and associated metabolic risk factors among Sri Lankan adults. BMC Public Health, 15(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-015-1927-7


2.Liu, M., He, Y., Jiang, B., Wang, J., Wu, L., Wang, Y., Zhang, D., Zeng, J., & Yao, Y. (2015). Association Between Family History and Hypertension Among Chinese Elderly. Medicine, 94(48), e2226. https://doi.org/10.1097/md.0000000000002226


3.Tozo, T. A., Pereira, B. O., Menezes Junior, F. J. de, Montenegro, C. M., Moreira, C. M. M., & Leite, N. (2022). Family History of Hypertension: Impact on Blood Pressure, Anthropometric Measurements and Physical Activity Level in Schoolchildren. International Journal of Cardiovascular Sciences, 35, 382–390. https://doi.org/10.36660/ijcs.20200346


4.Roland, J. (2022, April 18). Familial Hypertension: The Genetics of High Blood Pressure. Healthline. https://www.healthline.com/health/high-blood-pressure-hypertension/familial-hypertension


5.Family History of Hypertension | Aktiia. (2023, April 25). Aktiia.com. https://aktiia.com/uk/family-history-of-hypertension


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